Understand the types of telephone networks (3G, 4G, H + etc ..)
For several years, the bit rates available on our smart-phones are constantly improving and 2014 was the year of the 4G.
3G, 4G, H + … the acronyms to qualify the types of networks are numerous and sometimes not easily understandable. Decrypt the different variants to better understand how the telephone networks work.
The different “G”
The 1G , it was the beginning of the mobile telephony and at the time only the elite could boast of being able to telephone from anywhere, considering the cost of the subscriptions. It was still analog phones just like a France Telecom line.
In 1991, 1G gives way to 2G with the first experimental communication on the GSM network. The 2G allows, in addition to conveying the voice, to transmit SMS but also MMS. At the time it was a revolution.
The importance of flow has been brought to light and extensions of the standard have been developed. This is how GPRS (2.5G) and then EDGE (2.75G) appear successively. With the latter, the world of the web is starting to really reach the range of mobile devices.
Today, everyone knows 3G , but you should know that it is very recent. The first 3G offer marketed in France, dates from November 2004 . SFR and Orange were the first in the niche, followed very late in 2007 by Bouygues Telecom and more recently by Free Mobile in 2012.
The evolutions of 3G
The nerve of war in mobile telephony, beyond the price, it is not the voice but the data rate achievable . 3G already had a bitrate of almost 400Kbps , but in 2006, the commercial offers adapt to the standard that has continued to evolve and move to HSDPA , the 3.5G. On our mobiles, it’s the famous H , next to the level of reception.
In 2010, we go to 3.75G, with H + mode. The HSPA allows in optimal conditions to have flow rates of 14.4Mbps . That’s what we knew best until October.
The end of 2012 has been rich in developments for the French mobile network. The Dual Carrier , a kind of H ++ , is emerging. It is in fact a “hack” of the 3.75G: the terminal opens two simultaneous data connections to double its flow and thus reach a theoretical maximum throughput of 42Mbps . In the wake, and even before the end of the year, the 4G is officially open commercially. Orange and Bouygues will arrive on the segment during the first half of 2013.
The new “G”: 4G
French operators have been deploying the so- called 4G LTE network for several months now. In fact, it is an abuse of language: It is not really 4G as it is defined in the 3GPP standard. It should rather speak of 3.9G … However, we do not lie so far as in the rules defined by the ARCEP, the term 4G can be used when the maximum achievable flow exceeds 60Mbps . We are far from the theoretical speed of 300 Mbps 4G but according to the rules established in France, the flow can still be stamped 4G.
We will arrive at the real 4G when upgrading to the next release, release 10, of the 3GPP standard. We can therefore speak of LTE Advanced . The theoretical speeds will be huge: not far from 1Gbps download and 200Mbps upload
According to the site mobile-users.net which lists all the relay antennas in France, the standard that defines the LTE as it is today dates from 2008 and arrives only at this moment on our networks. We are not ready to navigate in real 4G .
In 2013, the new operator FREE MOBILE has also offered compatible packages on the only available frequency: 4G LTE 2600
Now that commercial offers are there, it is necessary that the number of LTE-compatible mobile phones grow so as not to constrain users who have subscribed to a 4G subscription without being able to exploit it fully.